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  • 商品名称: 水处理专业名词解释中英文版
  • 商品编号: 0002
  • 上架时间: 2019-05-14
  • Views : 6

一、基本概念Basic concept

1. 电导:在两片面积各一平方厘米,相隔一厘米距离的极片间可移动的离子数目,称为电导率,单位:μs/cm

1.Electrical conductivity: in the two area of each square centimeter, one centimeter away from the pole piece between the mobile number of ions, called the conductivity, unit: s/cm.

 

2. 电阻:电导的倒数,单位:MΩ/cm

2. Resistance: the reciprocal of the conductance, unit: MΩ/cm

 

3. 硬度:指水源中钙镁离子的含量。

3. hardness: refers to the content of calcium and magnesium ions in water.

 

4. pH:溶液中酸和碱的相对含量。pH值是水中氢离子浓度的负对数(log)的度量单位。pH值分0~14挡,pH值为7.0则水为中性;pH值小于7.0,则水为酸性的;pH值大于7.0。则水为碱性的。

4. pH value: the relative content of acid and base in solution. PH value is a measure of the negative logarithm (log) of the hydrogen ion concentration in water. PH value points 0~14 block, pH value of 7 water is neutral; pH value is less than 7, then the water is acidic; pH value is greater than 7. Then the water is alkaline.

 

 

5. 总溶解固体量(TDS:是指溶解于在水的总固体含量,通常指矿物质含量。

5. Total dissolved solids (TDS): refers to the total dissolved solids content in the water, usually refers to the mineral content\

 

 

6. 碱度:碱度是指水中能够接受[H+]离子与强酸进行中和反应的物质含量。水中产生碱度的物质主要由碳酸盐产生的碳酸盐碱度和碳酸氢盐产生的碳酸氢盐碱度,以及由氢氧化物存在而产生的氢氧化物碱度。

6. Alkalinity:basicity is refers to the material content in the water can accept [H+] ions with strong acid neutralization reaction. Water alkalinity material mainly composed of carbonate alkalinity and carbonate bicarbonate bicarbonate alkalinity, and by hydroxide existence of hydroxide alkalinity.

 

 

7. 总有机碳(TOC:总有机碳(TOC)是以mg/L为单位的水中有机物污染的度量单位。TOC是可氧化的有机物的直接度量单位。

7.total organic carbon (TOC): total organic carbon (TOC) is a unit of measurement of organic pollutants in water by mg/L. TOC is a direct measure of the oxidation of organic matter.

 

8. 活性炭:颗粒活性炭,用于去除水中的异味、气味、氯气、氯胺及一些有机物。

8. Activated carbon:granular activated carbon, activated carbon for the removal of odor, odor, chlorine, chloramines and some organic compounds.

 

9. NTU:散射浊度单位用一束光通过样水,用散射浊度计测出低浑浊水的浑浊度。

9.NTU:Scattering turbidity unit - using a beam of light through the sample water, using the scattering turbidity meter to measure the turbidity of low turbidity water.

 

 

10. 渗透:水通过半透膜,从低浓度溶液一侧向高浓度溶液一侧自然的流动,直到能量达到平衡。

10.Penetration: water through a semipermeable membrane, from one side of the low concentration solution to the high concentration of the solution side of the natural flow, energy until equilibrium is reached.

 

 

11. SDI:污染指数用于测量反渗透系统所用原水中悬浮固体的数量。

11.SDI:Pollution index - the number of suspended solids in raw water used in reverse osmosis systems

 

12. 树脂:专门制造的聚合物小球,用在离子交换系统中,去除水溶液中的溶解盐。

12.resin: specially made polymer beads, used in the ion exchange system, the removal of dissolved salts in aqueous solution.

 

 

13. LSIlangelier饱和指数一种计算公式,采用该公式,在规定的条件:温度、pH值、TDS、硬度及碱性下进行碳酸钙沉淀的预测。

13.LSI:langelier Saturated index - a formula, using the formula, in the specified conditions: temperature, pH value, TDS, hardness and alkalinity of the calcium carbonate precipitation forecast

 

14. 臭氧:氧的一种不稳定的、高活性的形式,它是由自然雷电或高压电荷通过空气所产生的,是一种优良的氧化剂和消毒剂。

14. Ozone: an unstable and highly active form of oxygen, which is produced by natural lightning or high pressure electric charge through the air, and is an excellent oxidant and disinfectant.

 

15. 余氯:水经过加氯消毒,接触一定时间后,水中所余留的有效氯。

15. chlorine water after chlorine disinfection, contact after a certain time, the residual chlorine in water.

 

16. 回收率:指设备出水量占进水量的比率,反映设备自身耗水量的大小。

16. ecovery rate: refers to the proportion of the amount of water consumption of equipment, reflecting the size of water consumption of equipment itself.

 

17. 脱盐率:指反渗透等去除水中TDS的比率。

17.desalination rate: refers to the reverse osmosis, such as the removal of the ratio of TDS in water.

 

 

18. 总大肠杆菌:总大肠菌群系指一群需氧及兼性厌氧的,在37℃生长时能使乳糖发酵,在24h内产酸产气的革氏阴性无芽胞杆菌。总大肠菌群系指每升水样中所含有的总大肠菌群的数目。

18. Total coliforms: total coliform formation refers to a group of aerobic and facultative anaerobic, at 37 DEG C when grown to enable lactose fermentation, in 24 hours and produce acid and gas leather gram negative bacillus. Total coliform group refers to the total number of coliform bacteria in water samples contained per liter.

 

 

19. 菌落总数:指1ml水(或1g样品),在普通琼脂培养基中经37℃24h培养后所生长的细菌菌群总数。

19.Total number of colonies: refers to the total number of 1ml water (or 1g samples), the total number of bacteria grown in the ordinary agar medium after 37 degrees C and 24h.

 

 

20. 纯水、高纯水:纯水是指水中盐类(主要是溶于水的强电解质)除去或降低到一定程度的净水设备。1.0-10.0μS/cm,电阻率(25℃0.1-1.0*106cm含盐量为1-5mg/L。高纯水,是指将水中的导电介质几乎全部去除,又将水中不离解的胶体物质、气体和有机物均去除至很低程度的水。高纯水的含盐量在0.3mg/L以下,电导率小于0.2μs/cm

20. Pure water, high pure water: pure water is the water salt (mainly dissolved in water strong electrolyte) removed or reduced to a certain degree of water purification equipment. 1.0-10.0 mu S/cm, resistivity (25 C) 0.1-1.0*106cm salt content is 1-5mg/L. High pure water, is to remove the conductive medium in water, and the water does not dissociation of colloidal substances, gases and organic matter are removed to a very low degree of water. The salt content of the high pure water is less than 0.3mg/L, and the conductivity is less than 0.2 mu s/cm.

 

 

 

二、设备介绍equipment introduction

 

 1.沉淀:沉淀通常是一种多步工艺,用以减少水中浑浊物和悬浮物。这一多步工艺包含加入化学凝结剂或pH值调节剂以反应生成絮状物,絮状物由于重力作用而在沉淀桶中沉淀下来,或当水通过高差滤池时滤掉。沉淀工艺可有效地去除大于25um的微粒。

1.Precipitation is usually a multi-step process used to reduce turbidity and suspended solids in water. The multi step process includes adding chemical coagulating agent or pH value regulator to reaction of floc, floc due to the action of gravity and in the settling tank settling down, or when the water through the filter of elevation filtered. The precipitation process can effectively remove particles larger than 25um.

 

 

 

 

 2.化学软化-石灰苏打软化:在水中加入石灰(CaO)和苏打粉(Na2CO3)以减少其钙镁含量的方法称为石灰软化法。其目标是使水中的氢氧化钙和氢氧化镁(硬度)沉淀析出。该工艺花费少,但效果勉强。通常生产出的水硬度为50~120ppm3~7gpg)。该工艺不足之处是处理后的水pH值高,一般在8.5~10.0范围。

2.Chemical softening - lime soda softening: in the water adding lime (CaO) and baking soda (Na2CO3) to reduce the content of calcium and magnesium method known as lime softening process. The goal is to make the water calcium and magnesium hydroxide (hardness) precipitation. The process costs less, but the effect is barely. The water hardness is usually produced by 50~120ppm (3~7gpg). The process is inadequate in the pH value of the treated water is high, generally in the range of 8.5~10.0.

 

 

 

 3.机械过滤器:机械过滤器为一填充规定厚度滤料的压力容器,当填充单一滤料时为单层机械过滤器,填充不同种类滤料时为双层或多介质过滤器。

3.Mechanical filter: mechanical filter for a filler thickness of the pressure vessel, when filled with a single filter for a single mechanical filter, filled with different kinds of filter material for the double or multi medium filter

 

 

功能:在水质预处理系统中,多介质过滤器压力容器内不同粒径的石英砂按一定级配装填,经絮凝的原水在一定压力下自上而下通过滤料层,从而使水中的悬浮物得以截留去除,多介质过滤器能够有效去除原水中悬浮物、细小颗粒、全价铁及胶体、菌藻类和有机物。其出水SDI15(污染指数)小于等于5,完全能够满足反渗透装置的进水要求。

Function: in water quality pre processing system, multi media filter pressure vessels in different particle size of quartz sand according to certain level loading fill, the flocculation of raw water under certain pressure top-down through the filter layer, so that suspended solids can be interception removal and multi media filter can enough effective removal of suspended solids, fine particles, the full price of iron and colloid, bacteria and algae and organic matter. The effluent SDI15 (pollution index) is less than or equal to 5, which can completely meet the requirements of the water inlet of the reverse osmosis device.

 

 

4.软化器:离子交换软化装置是水处理过程中最常用的一种设备,其作用是去除硬水中形成水垢的钙和镁离子。在许多情况下,利用软化水设备可去除可溶性离子(铁离子)。标准软水设备有四个主要部分:树脂柱、树脂、加盐装置、阀门控制器。

4. Softener: ion exchange softening device is a water treatment process in the most commonly used a device, its role is to remove the formation of scale of calcium and magnesium ions in hard water. In many cases, soluble ions (iron ions) can be removed by using the softened water equipment. Standard water softener equipment has four main parts: resin column, resin, salt device, valve controller.

 

 

软水设备树脂柱里装有处理过的离子交换树脂聚苯乙烯小颗粒。这种树脂颗粒起初在再生过程中是吸附钠离子,这个树脂对多价离子诸如钙离子、镁离子的亲和力大得多。因而,当硬水流经树脂时,钙离子和镁离子就会吸附在树脂上,同时又解吸离子,直至达到平衡状态。这时,软水设备就完成了其中的钠离子与水里钙镁离子的交换。

Ion softener equipment installed in the resin column exchange resin treated polystyrene particles. The resin particles at first in the regeneration process is adsorption of sodium ion and the affinity of the resin for polyvalent ions such as calcium and magnesium ions. So when hard water flows through the resin, calcium ion and magnesium ion will adsorption on the resin, and ion desorption, until it reaches the equilibrium state. At this time, completed the exchange of equipment soft water calcium and magnesium ions with sodium ions and water in the.

 

 

 

再生时,使NaCl溶液流经树脂,硬离子就置换成了钠离子。采用高浓度盐水使树脂与硬离子之间的这种亲和力得以减弱。这个再生过程可以无限重复进行而不会损坏树脂。

When regeneration is made, the NaCl solution flows through the resin, and the hard ion is replaced by a sodium ion. The affinity between the resin and the hard ion can be reduced by using the high concentration of salt water. This process can be repeated indefinitely without damaging the resin.

 

 

 

 5.混床:混床是混合离子交换柱的简称,是针对离子交换技术所设计的设备。所谓混床,就是把一定比例的阳、阴离子交换树脂混合装填于同一交换装置中,对流体中的离子进行交换、脱除。由于阳树脂的比重比阴树脂大,所以在混床内阴树脂在上阳树脂在下。一般阳、阴树脂装填的比例为12,也有装填比例为11.5的,可按不同树脂酌情考虑选择。

5.The mixed: mixed bed ion exchange column for ion exchange is referred to as the design technology of equipment. The so-called mixed bed, is to a certain proportion of cation and anion exchange resin mixed loading in the same exchange device, the exchange, the removal of ions in the fluid. Because the ratio of yin and Yang resin resin, so in the mixed bed resin in Yin Yang resin at. General positive and negative resin filling ratio of 1:2, but also has a filling ratio of 1:1.5, according to the different resin as appropriate to consider the choice.

 

 

 

 6.反渗透:反渗透是一种最广泛采用的膜分离工艺,利用压力使水透过膜,而可溶性盐份、胶体、有机物及微生物被截留在膜表面,随浓水排放。它可有效地去除全部的有机物和90%~99%的离子。

6.reverse osmosis:Reverse osmosis (RO) is a kind of the most widely used membrane separation process, the use of pressure water through the membrane and soluble salts, colloid, organic matter and microorganisms trapped on the membrane surface, with the concentrated water discharge. It can effectively remove all of the organic matter and 90%~99% ions.

 

 

 7.超滤:超滤是介于微滤与纳滤之间,且三者之间无明显的分界线。一般来说,超滤膜的孔径在0.05 um–1 nm之间,操作压力为0.1–0.5 Mpa。主要用于截留去除水中的悬浮物、胶体、微粒、细菌和病毒等大分子物质。

7.Ultrafiltration:Ultrafiltration is between microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, no obvious boundary between the three. In general, the pore diameter of the UF membrane is between 0.05 um and 1 nm, and the operating pressure is 0.1 - 0.5 Mpa. Mainly used for removal of suspended solids, colloids, particles, bacteria and viruses, and other large molecular substances.

 

 

8.纳滤:纳滤分离作为一项新型的膜分离技术,技术原理近似机械筛分。但是纳滤膜本体带有电荷性。这是它在很低压力下仍具有较高脱盐性能和截留分子量为数百的膜也可脱除无机盐的重要原因。

8.NF: nanofiltration separation as a new membrane separation technology, the technical principle of approximate mechanical sieving. But the body with a charge of nanofiltration membrane. This is the important reason for the membrane to remove inorganic salts with high desalination performance and molecular weight rejection at low pressure.

 

 

 9.杀菌:臭氧、紫外线、二氧化氯

9.Sterilization: ozone, ultraviolet, chlorine dioxide

 

 

10.加药装置:絮凝剂、酸、碱、杀菌剂、阻垢剂

10. dosing device: flocculant, acid, alkali, antiseptic and anti scaling agent

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